By Geoffrey H. Dutton
While spatial facts is digitized to be used in geographic details platforms and different software program, information regarding its unique scale, answer and accuracy is often misplaced. for that reason, utilizing such details at various scales and mixing it with facts from different assets should be tricky. Mapping vector info at smaller than the unique scale calls for its generalization, that's often dealt with by means of post-processing in ways in which are just weakly supported through databases. The versions and strategies defined during this ebook conquer many such difficulties by means of offering a multi-resolution facts illustration that enables retrieval of map facts at a hierarchy of scales, in addition to documenting the accuracy of each spatial coordinate.
Read or Download A Hierarchical Coordinate System for Geoprocessing and Cartography (Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences) PDF
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Extra info for A Hierarchical Coordinate System for Geoprocessing and Cartography (Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences)
These operators are sometimes given different names and definitions in the literature (some may be ignored entirely); professional cartographers are not at all agreed on how to characterize the fundamental activities these terms denote, as a survey by Rieger and Coulson (1993) documented. The most general agreement seems to be that generalization begins with selection of data to be displayed, after which other operators come into play. A special journal issue (Weibel 1995) offers papers from well-known researchers examining a number of aspects of digital map generalization, including line simplification techniques and much more.
S. states to fit in one hexagonal facet (Alaska occupies another hexagon and Hawaii a third one); but inevitably, this strategy dissected other nations and territories in inconvenient ways. Each of the 32 facets in this model is treated as flat, and all locations within it projected from geographic coordinates to planar ones using a Lambert conic equal area projection that varies distances between sampling points by less than two percent (White et al 1992). Within any primary EMAP hexagonal or pentagonal plate, various tessellations provide equal-area sampling units across a range of scales.
Region quadtrees are but one of numerous variants of hierarchical space partitioning systems, but are perhaps the most widely used of them. In our approach, however, as vertices (point locations) are encoded (as opposed to line elements or polygons), we could also call the data structure a point quadtree. In Samet's semi-official terminology, we could call our storage mechanism a PR Quadtree (P for point, R for region), as each leaf node is a region that is occupied by one and only one vertex (Samet 1990: 92).