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By Parson A. L.

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10. Circuit diagram for a more generalized form of the oscillator. 11. The equivalent circuit of the generalized form of the oscillator. Ro represents the output resistance of the amplifier. 20) becomes bA ¼ À Recall that for oscillation to occur 1 À bA ¼ 0: ð2:4:23Þ This means that bA must be real and hence, X1 þ X2 þ X3 ¼ 0 ð2:4:24Þ X2 ¼ ÀðX1 þ X3 Þ: ð2:4:25Þ that is, The expression for the loop gain becomes bA ¼ ÀAv X1 : X2 ð2:4:26Þ Since bA ¼ 1, it follows that X1 and X2 must have opposite signs; that is, if one of them is inductive, the other must be capacitive and X3 can be capacitive or inductive, depending on the sign of (X1 þ X2 ).

This is necessary if interference between radio stations is to be 36 AMPLITUDE MODULATED RADIO TRANSMITTER avoided. The drift of the frequency of an ordinary LC oscillator, for example, makes it unsuitable for this purpose. Greater frequency stability can be achieved by using a crystal as a part of the oscillator circuit [4]. 1, the behavior of the crystal when it is excited by an ac signal was discussed. It is evident that, since the crystal reacts to electrical excitation, it must be possible to devise an electrical circuit made up of inductors, resistors and capacitors whose frequency characteristics are approximately those of the crystal.

1. 1. Amplitude modulated wave: the carrier frequency remains sinusoidal at oc while the envelope varies at frequency os . The factor k is called the depth of modulation and may be expressed as a percentage. 2. 2. 1. Note that there are three distinct frequencies present. 3. Frequency spectrum of the AM wave when the single frequency modulating signal is replaced by a band of audio frequencies. Note that the information in the signal resides only in the sidebands. (oc À os ), and the frequency equal to the sum of the carrier frequency and the modulating signal frequency (oc þ os ).

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