By Viacheslav A. Chirikba
Abkhaz is without doubt one of the 3 languages comprising the Abkhazo-Adyghean, or West Caucasian department of North Caucasian linguistic relations (the different department being Nakh-Daghestanian, or East Caucasian). Abkhaz is spoken by means of nearly 100,000 humans within the former Soviet union (mainly within the Republic of Abkhazia, Caucasus), and by means of no less than an analogous variety of audio system in Turkey and a few center east international locations (small Abkhaz colonies are available additionally in Western Europe and the USA). Abkhaz is infamous for its large consonantal stock (up to sixty seven consonants in its Bzyp dialect) and via its minimum vocalic procedure: basically vowels. notwithstanding Abkhaz was once studied by way of a few students (among whom P. Uslar in XIX century, or extra simply ok. Lomtatidze in Georgia and G. Hewitt in nice Britain), many elements of Abkhaz grammar (especially its syntax) nonetheless must be effectively defined. Abkhaz is the single West Caucasian language to own the class of grammatical sessions, manifested in own pronouns, verb conjugation, numerals and in classification of quantity. Abkhaz is an ergative language, the ergative development being represented now not via case endings, as in similar Circassian and Ubykh (Abkhaz doesn't have the case system), yet by means of order of actant markers. The verbal root is composed often of 1 consonant, preceded by way of a string of prefixes (class-personal, directional, temporal, negational, causative, etc.) and through few suffixes. Verbs may be stative or dynamic, finite or non-finite. The grammatical comic strip of Abkhaz contains information regarding its phonological method, morphology, and syntax. a quick textual content is supplied with grammatical reviews.
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Additional info for Abkhaz
2. Complex Sentences. 2. Relative (Adjective) Clauses. Relative clauses are formed by means of relativized non-finite verb-forms. Any argu~ent (including instrumental) can be relativized. , they precede their nominal heads. it-she-write-AOR-DYN:FIN//it-she-write-PIDF then ART-outside she-PREV-exit-AOR-DYN:FIN 'She wrote a letter and then went out'. (h 0a) e-l-h 08-ej't' QUOT it-she-say-AOR-DYN:FIN . A regular variant sentence will put the author of the statement (/ani 'she'), omitted in the first sentence (because its marker is coded in the verb-form), in initial position: (47) ja-IHi-s-h a-wa-jt' 0 e.
Sukhum, 105 pp. ELLIS, G. 1788. Memoir of a map of the countries comprehended between the Black Sea and the Caspian; with an account of the Caucasian nations, and vocabularies of their languages. London: J. Edwards. GENKO, A. 1928. Abkhazskij vokalizm [The Abkhaz vocalism] . In: Jzvestija Akademii Nauk SSSR. Otdelenie Gumanitarnykh Nauk, pp. 45-54. 1957. Foneticheskie vzaimootnoshenija abkhazskogo i abazinskogo jazykov [Phonetic interrelationships between Abkhaz and Abaza] . In: Trudy Abkhazskogo Instituta Jazyka, Literatury i Istorii, vyp.
2. (e)). 1. Genitive Constructions. In genitive constructions the possessor constituent precedes the possessed one. a. possessor noun or pronoun+possessed noun: a-pb 0asllari M-C"k"'an 'ART-woman/she herchild= woman's/her child', sari sa-s 0q"'a 'my book', wart ra-mat 0a-k 0a 'their clothes, possessions'. b. possessor noun or pronoun +possessed masdar: a-ph 0asllari 1-ca-ri 'woman/she her-gomg =the woman's/her going'. c. possessor pronoun+possessed pronoun : /ani 1-t "'a 'she her-possession = her (own)'.