By Franck Courchamp
Allee results are (broadly) outlined as a decline in person health at low inhabitants measurement or density. they could lead to severe inhabitants thresholds lower than which populations crash to extinction. As such, they're very appropriate to many conservation programmes, the place scientists and executives are frequently operating with populations which have been diminished to low densities or small numbers. there are a number of mechanisms that may create Allee results together with mating structures, predation, environmental amendment, and social interactions. The abrupt and unexpected collapses of many exploited populations is only one representation of the necessity to carry Allee results to the vanguard of conservation and administration innovations. Allee results in Ecology and Conservation offers a concise but authoritative review of the subject, collating and integrating a commonly dispersed literature from quite a few fields - marine and terrestrial, plant and animal, theoretical and empirical, educational and utilized. This available textual content, with its transparent and straightforward motives of either empirical observations and theoretical predications is especially appropriate for pro and educational ecologists requiring an outline of the state of the art in Allee influence study, in addition to for graduate scholars in inhabitants ecology and conservation biology. it's going to even be of relevance to a large readership of execs in conservation and administration requiring a concise precis of the subject.
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Additional info for Allee Effects in Ecology and Conservation
5. Development of Micropletis rufiventris larvae inside Spodoptera littoralis larvae. The parasitoids hatch and develop better in larger groups, perhaps because they are better able to overcome host immune defences (Hegazi and Khafagi 2005). 4. Positive feedbacks, population boundaries and self-organized patterning There has been much recent work on interactions between neighbouring individuals along gradients of environmental stress. g. the intertidal, high-altitude and semi-arid zones, high energy marine environments) attached organisms such as mussels, barnacles, salt-marsh grasses and alpine plants can facilitate the growth and survival of their neighbours through various mechanisms, but under less harsh conditions they compete (see review in Gascoigne el al.
As a result, the fewer foxes there are, the more each of them is likely (relatively) to be preyed upon. Ecologically, this is an interesting example because these Allee effects in the island fox are mediated by an indirect interaction with an introduced prey species (the pigs). It also posed a conservation conundrum because to save the island fox from extinction required removal of golden eagles, which are a protected species (Courchamp el al. 2003). ). Predator avoidance is one of the significant benefits of such aggregations (Hamilton 1971, Morton 1994, Reluga and Viscido 2005 and references therein), although they have other benefits, such as improved reproductive or foraging success (Krebs el al.
2004). 2. Fertilization efficiency in broadcast spawning invertebrates (four echinoderms, one gastropod), showing a general trend of exponential decline in the proportion of eggs fertilised with increasing nearest neighbour distance. Data from Babcock et al. (1994) (crown of thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci); Levitan et al. (1992) (red sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus); Pennington (1985) (green sea urchin, S. droebachiensis); Levitan (1991) (Caribbean long-spined sea urchin, Diadema antillarum); Babcock and Keesing (1999) (greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata).