By J. R. Averill
In contemporary years, very much has been written related to aggression; one other ebook at the related subject might sound superfluous at the moment. in spite of the fact that, the current quantity isn't really just-or even primarily-about aggres sion. it really is, fairly, a booklet on anger. Anger and aggression are heavily similar phenomena, and it isn't attainable to debate one with out the opposite. but, now not all anger is competitive, nor can all aggression be attributed to anger. accordingly, slightly diversified issues follow to every. much more importantly, the kind of theoretical generalizations you'll be able to make differs based upon even if the first concentration is on anger or aggression. the current quantity is subtitled "an essay on emotion." this means that the generalizations to be drawn have extra to do with emotional responses (e.g., grief, love, envy, etc.) than with numerous varieties of aggression (e.g., riots, struggle, crimes of violence, etc.). acknowledged a bit of in a different way, anger is right here getting used as a paradigm case for the research of emotion, no longer for the research of aggression.
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Extra info for Anger and Aggression: An Essay on Emotion
Intermale aggression occurs, as its name implies, between male conspecifics. With few exceptions, the male of most species is more aggressive than the female, and the target of the aggression is another male of the same species. The topography of intermale aggression is often highly stereotyped, consisting of threat displays and attacks against well-protected portions of the opponent's body. The male sex hormone (androgen) is critical for the development and maintenance of this form of aggression.
4. In the absence of maintenance inputs, biological systems tend to undergo progressive relaxation. That is, the individual elements gradually become more loosely connected and independent of one another. The opposite of progressive relaxation is systematization, that is, the strengthening of preexisting relations and/or the addition of new elements and relationships into a system. Both processes are evident in the cliff nesting of the kittiwake, which involved the relaxation of antipredator defenses found in other gulls as well as the evolution of new adaptive specializations.
Moreover, the various human emotions differ in how closely they are related to biological systems. Some very simple emotional reactions, such as startle to a loud noise, can be accounted for largely in biological terms. Other emotions, such as hope, courage, and envy, are more the product of socio- 38 2: Anger and Aggression in Biological Perspective cultural than biological evolution. One of the central themes of the present volume is that anger belongs with the latter group. 6. As a final point, it might be noted that the mere involvement of a biological system does not make a response emotional.