By Henry Etzkowitz, Carol Kemelgor, Brian Uzzi
Why are there nonetheless so few girl scientists? regardless of the medical ethos of universalism and inclusion, girls proceed to event actual social inequities as they fight to realize attractiveness within the medical neighborhood. in keeping with vast interviews and subsidized by way of quantitative research, this compelling paintings exposes the hidden obstacles, sophisticated exclusions, and unwritten principles that confront ladies at each juncture alongside the clinical occupation path--from youth to retirement. via shiny own debts the authors provide an illuminating and sobering view of the results those hindrances have at the own lives of girls. They argue that girls can reach the medical office by means of effectively dealing with "social capital," these networks and relationships scientists depend on for pro help and new principles. This benchmark quantity is key examining for all scientists and social scientists--both male and female--and for ladies contemplating a systematic profession.
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Extra info for Athena Unbound: The Advancement of Women in Science and Technology
For instance, boys and girls at age two had ‘concepts’ of persons by occupation only if they had previous exposure to people holding the particular role. None of the two-year-olds were able to identify ‘scientists’, but those youngsters whose parents were expecting babies understood the notion of ‘doctor’ and thus applied this familiar concept based on the white lab coat. In other words, the young child’s perceptions are not always dictated by a concrete situation. In this same way, the child learns to link attributes with their own sex or the sex of others.
However, if experiences are foreclosed and the child’s world becomes constrained by what is seen to be appropriate to that sex, the child not only tends to abandon socially unacceptable interests, but comes to fearfully avoid that which is unfamiliar (Schachtel, 1959). Such a self-limiting process is exempliﬁed in the historically high proportion of girls who lose interest in how the natural world works. When socialization impedes the individual’s fulﬁllment of his or her potentiality, society as well as the individual loses.
An eighth-grader described a dream in which she saw herself working for a scientist who did the experiments while she was left to write the paper. The youngster ended with, ‘That’s the way it is, right? . ’ It is not that most girls will have been directly told that they ‘can’t’ do what boys can. ’ Nevertheless, in various ways many receive veiled messages of discouragement and denigration (Orenstein, 1994). DISCOURAGEMENT OF GIRLS ’ INTEREST IN SCIENCE DURING ADOLESCENCE One of the primary tasks of adolescence is the further consolidation of identity.