By Joel Aberbach, Visit Amazon's Robert D. Putnam Page, search results, Learn about Author Central, Robert D. Putnam, , Bert Rockman
In uneasy partnership on the helm of the trendy nation stand elected celebration politicians bureaucrats. This ebook is the 1st complete comparability of those robust elites. In seven countries--the usa, nice Britain, France, Germany, Sweden, Italy, and the Netherlands--researchers puzzled seven hundred bureaucrats and 6OO politicians for you to know how their goals, attitudes, and objectives vary inside cultural settings.
One of the authors' most vital findings is that the worlds of those elites overlap even more within the usa than in Europe. yet in the course of the West bureaucrats and politicians every one put on detailed blinders and every have particular virtues. In a well-ordered polity, the authors finish, politicians articulate society's desires and bureaucrats carry them gingerly to earth.
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Extra resources for Bureaucrats and Politicians in Western Democracies (Peabody Museum)
B Two pro-European Labourites who abstained on the vote are excluded from this table. of these values, even when these two types of attitude are measured through different media. II Opportunities permitting, consistent beliefs are likely to be salient, and salient beliefs are more likely to impact upon behavior. I2 Ceteris paribus, it is quite plausible to assume that even rather abstract attitudes and values can help predict behavior. The difficulty of testing this assumption rigorously, of course, is that in the real world of policymaking ceteris is hardly ever paribus.
We shall explore the more specialized or distinctive features of each role only insofar as those activities affect each group's policymaking behavior. We also emphasize that our respondents occupy senior positions in their national policymaking communities, for as we noted earlier, the appropriateness of one or another of the four images is quite likely to vary from level to level within the governmental apparatus. In general, we conjecture that Image I and perhaps Image II are particularly appropriate at lower levels Introduction 21 in the government hierarchy, whereas Image III and perhaps Image IV are more accurate at higher levels.
In the early 1970s, by contrast, parliamentary institutions were relatively strong and it was a period of unprecedented prosperity in both Western Europe and the United States, although there were ominous harbingers of economic and industrial difficulties to follow. Despite regional variations in prosperity and rates of economic- transformation, greater in some countries than in others, the social structure of every nation had been transformed as a consequence of the vast economic changes of the postwar period.