By Mikhail Myagkov, Peter C. Ordeshook, Dimitri Shakin
This quantity deals a few forensic symptoms of election fraud utilized to respectable election returns, and checks and illustrates their software in Russia and Ukraine. integrated are the methodology's econometric info and theoretical assumptions. The functions to Russia comprise the research of all federal elections among 1996 and 2007 and, for Ukraine, among 2004 and 2007. quite often, we discover that fraud has metastasized in the Russian polity in the course of Putin's management with upwards of 10 million or extra suspect votes in either the 2004 and 2007 vote casting, while in Ukraine, fraud has reduced significantly because the moment around of its 2004 presidential election the place among 1.5 to three million votes have been falsified. the quantity concludes with a attention of knowledge from the U.S. to demonstrate the risks of the appliance of our tools with no due attention of an election's substantial context and the features of the information handy.