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Without nationwide GSM coverage, which requires working relationships between carriers, GSM faces a hurdle. In the United States, AT&T has a large portion of the country covered with its IS-136 system, and Sprint has CDMA coverage in most major cities (and by using dual-mode handsets, they have analog roaming agreements in most of the rest). GSM offered carriers and customers more services and features immediately, but many new carriers expected CDMA to leap ahead in this area and provide an easier integration to a third generation format.

Today’s cellular design and optimization engineers have a variety of state-ofthe-art tools to use to ensure their network is at peak performance. Drive-test tools, which can measure and record information on signal strength and quality, are integrated into sophisticated mapping software packages. Advanced software packages even allow an engineer to play with the network coverage settings, such as the effect of raising or tilting an antenna, adding base stations, or perhaps changing the output powers.

The Nyquist theorem states that for proper A/D conversion, a sampling rate at least twice the highest frequency in the waveform must be used. Thus, a sampling rate of 8 kHz (which equates to 8,000 samples per second) should be used for human speech. Differences between the created digital waveform and the actual voice waveform are called quantization error. While this method can make for a high-quality conversation, if the system requires 8 bits for each sample—as is the case for a standard called pulse code modulation (PCM)—it would require a data rate of 64 Kbps, which would use too much bandwidth for most wireless systems.

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