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Therefore, it is quite easy for the network protocol stack to decide the application to which incoming data packets should be forwarded. In the SS-7 world, the task of forwarding incoming messages to the right application is done by SCCP. Instead of port numbers, SCCP uses Subsystem Numbers (SSNs). For database access, the Transaction Capability Application Part (TCAP) protocol has been designed as part of the SS-7 family of protocols. TCAP defines a number of different modules and messages that can be used to query all kinds of different databases in a uniform way.

This means that today, calls are no longer sent over an analog line from the originator to the terminator. Instead, the switching center digitizes the analog signal that it receives from the subscribers, which are directly attached to it, and forwards the digitized signal to the terminating switching center. There, the digital signal is again converted back to an analog signal, which is then sent over the copper cable to the terminating party. In some countries, ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) lines are quite popular.

The European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI), which is also responsible for a number of other standards, was the main body responsible for the creation of the GSM standard. The ETSI GSM standards are composed of a substantial number of standards documents, each of which is called a technical specification (TS), which describe a particular part of the system. In the following chapters, many of these specifications are referenced and can thus be used for further information about a specific topic.

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