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As converged networks and mobility are used an increasing number of in day-by-day enterprise, those applied sciences must be optimized to help company requisites. you are going to leam in regards to the new Cisco clever info community (IIN) version and the Cisco Service-Oriented community structure (SONA) as architectural frameworks for converged networks.
Regardless of the positive aspects that make Voice over IP so appealing from the point of view of rate and suppleness of cellphone companies, companies will purely undertake it as soon as they have made up our minds even if, and less than what situations, the standard of VoIP may be passable to clients. In those pages you will discover every thing you must understand to reply to these questions, either now and sooner or later as different packet-switched voice prone emerge.
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Therefore, it is quite easy for the network protocol stack to decide the application to which incoming data packets should be forwarded. In the SS-7 world, the task of forwarding incoming messages to the right application is done by SCCP. Instead of port numbers, SCCP uses Subsystem Numbers (SSNs). For database access, the Transaction Capability Application Part (TCAP) protocol has been designed as part of the SS-7 family of protocols. TCAP deﬁnes a number of different modules and messages that can be used to query all kinds of different databases in a uniform way.
This means that today, calls are no longer sent over an analog line from the originator to the terminator. Instead, the switching center digitizes the analog signal that it receives from the subscribers, which are directly attached to it, and forwards the digitized signal to the terminating switching center. There, the digital signal is again converted back to an analog signal, which is then sent over the copper cable to the terminating party. In some countries, ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) lines are quite popular.
The European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI), which is also responsible for a number of other standards, was the main body responsible for the creation of the GSM standard. The ETSI GSM standards are composed of a substantial number of standards documents, each of which is called a technical speciﬁcation (TS), which describe a particular part of the system. In the following chapters, many of these speciﬁcations are referenced and can thus be used for further information about a speciﬁc topic.