By William H. Dantzler
This moment version deals a complete evaluate of the physiological capabilities of vertebrate kidneys from a comparative standpoint, with specific emphasis on nonmammalian vertebrates. the subjects coated comprise renal constitution; glomerular ultrafiltration; tubular shipping of inorganic ions, natural elements, and fluid; and urine dilution and focus. Mammalian renal functionality is barely thought of for reasons of comparability with nonmammalian renal functionality and as a body of reference for a number of the discussions. the main findings on nonmammalian renal functionality and the real unanswered questions raised through these findings are defined intimately. As such, the booklet presents accomplished details on comparative renal functionality for organic scientists and complex scholars of biology with a few wisdom of body structure and a wish to comprehend extra approximately renal functionality in vertebrates, and for mammalian renal physiologists who desire to receive a broader view of renal function.
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This moment version deals a finished evaluate of the physiological capabilities of vertebrate kidneys from a comparative perspective, with specific emphasis on nonmammalian vertebrates. the themes coated comprise renal constitution; glomerular ultrafiltration; tubular delivery of inorganic ions, natural components, and fluid; and urine dilution and focus.
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Additional resources for Comparative Physiology of the Vertebrate Kidney
In addition, the role of the various components of the filtration barrier in permitting or preventing filtration of macromolecules in any species is the subject of active study and considerable controversy (vide infra; Chap. 3). On one side of the capillaries, the endothelial cells actually rest on the mesangial cells rather than on the basement membrane and covering podocytes described above, but it is not clear that any filtration occurs across this region. However, in all species examined (Kriz and Kaissling 1992; Peek and McMillan 1979a; Tisher and Madsen 1986), myofibrils are found in the mesangial cells, which may permit them to play a role in regulating the area available for filtration (vide infra; Chap.
In fact, except for fishes (Hentschel and 30 2 Renal Morphology Fig. 15 Schematic drawings showing characteristics of surfaces of proximal and distal tubule cells of mammals and reptiles. (A) Mammalian proximal cell type (less detailed than in Fig. 13). ) proximal cell type. Note amplification of basal surface area. ) proximal cell type. Note lack of amplification of basal surface area. (D) Mammalian thick ascending limb or early distal convoluted tubule cell type. ) distal cell type. Note deep basolateral infoldings with elongated mitochondria within them similar to those in mammalian cells.
13 Drawings of the proximal tubule ultrastructure in mammalian kidneys. To demonstrate the cellular interdigitations, neighboring cells and their processes are covered by a stippled texture. (a) P1 segment. The cellular interdigitations are most extensive and extend to the apical ends of the cells. The brush border is dense and high. (b) P2 segment. The cellular interdigitations are decreased; apically, the cells have a smooth outline. The brush border is less dense and reduced in height. Peroxysomes (cross-hatched profiles) are numerous.