By Charles Dodge, Thomas A. Jerse
This article displays the present nation of machine expertise and song composition. The authors supply transparent, useful overviews of software languages, real-time synthesizers, electronic filtering, synthetic intelligence, and lots more and plenty extra.
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Extra info for Computer Music: Synthesis, Composition, and Performance
_ .. I I " " .. 7 Cosine wave plotted relative to a sine wave. 8 Schematic o f the hearing apparatus o f the ear. The Acoustics and Psychoacoustics of Music 33 the outer ear to the cerebral cortex. The ear acts as a transducer, converting the mechan ical motion of vibration patterns to neural impulses. 8 illustrates the important parts of this physical apparatus. When the sound reaches the ear, it travels down the external canal to the eardrum. Here, it imparts its characteristic pattern ofvibratory ener gy to the eardru , which transmits vibration to the ossicles, a chain of three bones, the hammer, the nvil, and the stirrup.
6. The second part of step 1 (lb) is to provide input to the particular score editor asso ciated with the system. With step 1, the musician's input to the sound synthesis process is complete. Steps 2 and 3 are performed by the computer without intervention by the musician. In step 2, the instrument definitions are translated into a machine-language program, and the input from the score editor is compiled (if necessary) to put the score into the proper format for the processing of step 3. In step 3, the program actually "plays" the score on the instruments, thus creating the sound.
Phase is also used to compare the relative position of two waveforms. One of the waveforms is chosen as a reference and the position of the other waveform is compared to it. 6, waveform A leads waveform B; that is, it reaches its peak amplitude before waveform B. ) To quantify the relationship between waveforms, the distance between them is measured in terms of phase. In the figure, the difference between waveforms is 30°, and so waveform A is said to lead waveform B by 30°. Stated another way: the phase of waveform B with respect to A is -30°.