Download Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach Featuring the by Keith W. Ross, James F. Kurose PDF

By Keith W. Ross, James F. Kurose

(Pearson schooling) presents a clean method of computing device networking guideline. Contents comprise the net, protocols, community center, entry networks and actual media, hold up and loss in packet-switched networks, routing, multimedia networking, community administration, and extra. DLC: net (Computer network).

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They are immune to electromagnetic interference, have very low signal attenuation up to 100 kilometers, and are very hard to tap. These characteristics have made fiber optics the preferred long-haul guided transmission media, particularly for overseas links. Many of the long-distance telephone networks in the United States and elsewhere now use fiber optics exclusively. Fiber optics is also prevalent in the backbone of the Internet. However, the high cost of optical devices -- such as transmitters, receivers, and switches -- has hindered their deployment for short-haul transport, such as in a LAN or into the home in a residential access network.

The width of the band is called, not surprisingly, the bandwidth. FM radio stations also use FDM to share microwave frequency spectrum. htm (3 of 17)20/11/2004 15:51:40 The Network Core The trend in modern telephony is to replace FDM with TDM. The majority of the links in most telephone systems in the United States and in other developed countries currently employ TDM. For a TDM link, time is divided into frames of fixed duration and each frame is divided into a fixed number of time slots. When the network establish a connection across a link, the network dedicates one time slot in every frame to the connection.

If a common number were required for all links along the path, the switches would have to exchange and process a substantial number of messages to agree on the VC number to be used for a connection. If a network employs virtual circuits, then the network's switches must maintain state information for the ongoing connections. Specifically, each time a new connection is established across a switch, a new connection entry must be added to the switch's VC-number translation table; and each time a connection is released, an entry must be removed from the table.

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