By Harry Skinner
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Additional resources for Current orthopedics
Among the elements contained in these alloys is molybdenum, which is added to produce finer grains and thereby results in higher strength. The cobalt-based alloys are characterized by high fatigue resistance and high ultimate tensile strength levels, properties that make them appropriate for applications requiring a long service life and ability to resist fracture. The high wear resistance of these alloys also makes them desirable for load-bearing and articulating surface applications. Cobalt-chromium alloys are primarily used for components in total joint implants.
Nonphysiologic stress transfer may cause pressure necrosis or resorption at the bone-implant interface. Necrotic and resorbed bone may lead to implant loosening and migration, thus compromising implant longevity. Polyethylene wear particles are linked to osteolysis, also compromising implant longevity. Moreover, it is essential that materials have properties capable of sustaining the cyclic forces to which the implant will be subjected. For example, if the material properties are not adequate for load sharing, the implant may fail because of fracture.
Among the various elements contained in 316 and 316L stainless steels is molybdenum, which hardens the passive layer and increases pitting corrosion resistance. Iron-based alloys have a wide range of mechanical properties (Table 1â 3) that make them desirable for implant applications. Despite composition modifications, stainless steels are susceptible to corrosion inside the body, however. Therefore, they are most appropriate for temporary devices such as bone plates, bone screws, hip nails, and intramedullary nails.