By Jaroslav Krejci, Pavel Machonin
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Additional info for Czechoslovakia, 1918–92: A Laboratory for Social Change
Most Germans from the Baltic states and some from the Balkans were already settled in this way during the war. Transfers of population on a much larger scale were planned for the time after the war. When the war ended, such transfers really did happen, but the other way round from what Hitler had envisaged. It was the Germans who were expelled from their homelands. Although the Nazis were eliminated from the game, the principle of ethnic homogeneity which they had pushed to the forefront of their policy continued to be applied.
Opt for any national- 34 Ethnopolitics ity. As about 80 per cent of them Iived in Slovakia, they usually dcclared themselves according to the circumstances either as Slovaks or Magyars. Gipses (although speaking their own language) were officially looked upon as a socio-economic anomaly rather than an ethnic group right up to the 1991 census. They were not counted by censuses, but registered by local authorities (in 1947 there were 10 I 000, of whom 84 000 were in Slovakia; in 1966, 222000, of whom 165000 were in Slovakia).
When Germany eventually lost the war it was her turn not only to give up her spoils but also to cede a considerable part of her territory to Poland. The Poles seemed to be more than satisfied with those gains and raised no immediate claim against Czeehoslovakia. Yet suddenly, in June 1945, a Polish military unit moved towards the city of Tesfn. But the Soviet Union, the new dominant power in the area, was not interested in the reopening of the Tesln question. 4 The disputed Siovak-Polish borders The Balance Sheet 0/ Ethnic Changes 37 became stabilised on the line decided by the Peace conference after the First World War.